Oil on Paper / Coton Thread
10 x 5 cm ( x 10pc )
Wolfram terms the inability to shortcut a program or otherwise describe its behavior in a simple way, "computational irreducibility".
The empirical fact is that the world of simple programs contains a great diversity of behavior, but, because of undecidability, it is impossible to predict what they will do before essentially running them.
The idea demonstrates that there are occurrences where theory's predictions are effectively not possible. Wolfram states several phenomena are normally computationally irreducible.
Computational irreducibility explains observed limitations of existing mainstream science. In cases of computational irreducibility, only observation and experiment can be used. Computational irreducibility may also provide a scientifically-based resolution for free will.